Sanjak of Alexandretta (1938)
LOCATION: Political territory in northern Syria, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea
AREA: Approx. 10,000 sq. mi.
Population: 220,000 (est. 1936)
GOVERNMENT: French mandate
FIRST STAMPS: Syria, 1918
FIRST STAMPS ISSUED: 16 April 1938
LAST STAMPS ISSUED: 10 November 1938
100 centimes = 1 piastre
Alexandretta was founded in 333 BC by Alexander the Great as the key to the Syrian Gates (Belen Pass) and was originally located about 23 miles (37 km) south of the scene of his victory at the Battle of Issus. Alexander camped in the highlands around Esentepe and then ordered the city to be established and named Alexandria (Αλεξάνδρεια), one of many cities founded on his orders. Starting in the Middle Ages, Western pilgrims used the diminutive Romance form, Alexandretta.
After the Muslim conquest of Syria in the first half of the seventh century, the city was named al-ʼIskandarūn (الإسكندرون), the Arabic rendering of “Alexandrou”; this was later written as İskenderūn (إسكندرون) in Ottoman Turkish. The Ottoman Sultan Selim I conquered Syria in 1516 after defeating the Mamlukes at the Battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo in northern Syria. The area was still a scene of fighting under the Ottomans. It was at Alexandretta that the army of general Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppressed the rural uprising of Celali Canbulatoğlu in 1606. The Ottomans continued to fortify the city and the remains of early 17th-century Ottoman castle walls can still be seen.
Alexandretta grew as the main outlet for overland trade from Baghdad and India during the later Ottoman period. It had great importance until the Egyptian overland route was established. It was first a base for Genoese and Venetian merchants, then merchants from northern and western Europe. The British Levant Company maintained an agency and factory in Iskenderun for 200 years, until 1825. The port grew during the nineteenth century and the railway was built in 1912.
Lord Kitchener considered the conquest of Alexandretta to be essential in providing Britain with a port and railhead from which to access Iraq at the beginning of World War I. He proposed a railway to run from Alexandretta to India but this was later turned down in preference of Haifa.
The Ottoman Empire collapsed at the end of World War I and the Sanjak of Alexandretta, formerly part of the Aleppo province, was occupied by French troops starting in 1918. The French-Turkish treaty of 20 October 1921 granted autonomy to the sanjak (a Turkish word meaning “district”) which stated that “Turkish inhabitants of this district shall enjoy facility for their cultural development. The Turkish language shall have official recognition.” In 1923 Alexandretta was attached to the State of Aleppo, and in 1925 it was directly attached to the League of Nations French Mandate of Syria and the Lebanon, still with special administrative status.
Turkey under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk refused to accept the Sanjak of Alexandretta to be part of the mandate and Turkish politics aimed at incorporating the district. Local Turks initiated reforms in the style of Atatürk’s, formed various organizations and institutions in order to promote the idea of union with Turkey. In 1936, the elections returned two Syrian MPs who favored the independence of Syria from France in the sanjak, prompting communal riots and passionate articles in the Turkish and Syrian press. In response, Atatürk government coined the name Hatay for the Sanjak of Alexandretta
The sanjak was given autonomy in November 1937 in an arrangement brokered by the League of Nations. Under its new statute, the district became ‘distinct but not separated’ from the French mandate of Syria on the diplomatic level, linked to both France and Turkey for defense matters.
In early 1938, Syrian stamps of 1930-1936 were overprinted or surcharged for use in Alexandretta. The first of these were released on 14 April 1938 – nine general issue stamps, eight for airmail and six to collect postage due. Three additional general issue values were released on 2 September and the final set of five appeared on 10 November, overprinted with a black border to mark Atatürk’s death. This came after the 2 September 1938 proclamation of the Republic of Hatay which lasted for just one year under joint French and Turkish military supervision. The state was transformed de jure into the Hatay Province on 7 July 1939, and joined Turkey de facto on 23 July. The stamps of Alexandretta were superseded by those of Hatay when the first issued inscribed with that name were released in early 1939. I’ll deal with those in a future edition of “The Stamp Issuers.”
I have two stamps from the Sanjak of Alexandretta in my collection – a used copy of Scott #7, the 4-piastre yellow orange, and Scott #J1, the 50-centime Postage Due stamp in brown on yellow paper. Both feature the overprint in black; J1 also exists with a red overprint. Most Alexandretta stamps are catalogued between US $2 and $9 in my 2009 Scott catalogue forboth mint and used with quite a premium for never hinged copies. Scott #9 is is listed at $15, Scott #12 at $12, #C8 is $13 and #J6 is $12. However, the set of five Atatürk memorial stamps is valued at $175 unused or $350 mint never hinged.
It’s not often that I receive mail on two consecutive days but here we are on the 4th of July and the letter carrier brought me two orders, one I’d thought long lost. As you can see, the envelope above was posted in Spokane, Washington, on 26th May and so took some 38 days to arrive in (rainy) Phuket. The country name of “Thailand” seems to have been added after posting; unfortunately, there are no other postal markings to indicate what circuitous route it travelled to get here.
The envelope contained a pair of U.S. Air Mail stamps – Scott #C91 and C92 – issued on 23 September 1978 to mark the historic first flight of the Wright Brothers’ Flyer A at Kill Devil Hill in North Carolina. Interestingly, the 19 December 1903 flight and other early ascents were completely ignored by the press at the time and the feat wasn’t heralded until several years afterwards.
I’m currently reading David McCullough’s excellent 2015 biography of the Wright Brothers which, along with Bill Bryson’s One Summer: America, 1927 has rekindled an interest in early aeronautics and prompted me to start a topical collection along the lines of “American Aviation Pioneers”.
The second envelope was mailed from my former home of Albuquerque, New Mexico on 24 June and thus took but ten days to arrive which is very close to a record for U.S.-posted mail these days! It contained two stamps from the short-lived French mandate of Alexandretta which, like Alaouites, was located in the northern part of Syria and bordered Turkey. The territory released just 31 stamps, all in 1938 – the first were issued 14 April and comprised nine overprinted stamps of Syria for general use, eight for airmail and six for postage due; three additional general issue stamps were released on 2 September and the final five appeared 10 November.
The stamps received today were a used copy of Scott #7, the 4-piaster yellow orange, and Scott #J1, the 50-centime Postage Due stamp in brown on yellow paper. Both feature the overprint in black; J1 also exists with a red overprint. Alexandretta is country number 236 in my A Stamp From Everywhere collection. In late 1938, the stamps were replaced by those of the newly-renamed territory of Hatay.
Alaouites / Alawites State
LOCATION: A district of Syria, bordering on the Mediterranean Sea
GOVERNMENT: Under French mandate
POPULATION: 278,000 (est. 1930)
AREA: 2,500 square miles
FIRST STAMPS ISSUED: 1 January 1925
LAST STAMPS ISSUED: 1930
100 centimes = 1 piaster
The Alawite State, listed in most stamp catalogues under the French name Alaouites, was a region in western Syria bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. It was part of the Ottoman Empire at the start of the twentieth century but was occupied by France at the close of World War I. Growing anti-French sentiment in the region led to the establishment of the Arab Kingdom of Syria on 7 March 1920. The League of Nations issued a mandate on 5 May 1920 for France to govern the area of Syria and Lebanon. France divided the area of its mandate into territories and the Territory of the Alawites was formed on 2 September 1920. The coastal city of Latakia was the administrative capital. At the end of 1924, the territory became an independent state while still administered by France under mandate.
The first stamps issued for Alaouites were overprinted French stamps and were available in Latakia from the first of January 1925. This initial regular issue included twenty-one definitive stamps, four for airmail, and five French surcharged stamps intended for postage due. All included an overprint of the denomination and state name in both French and Arabic. Beginning in March 1925, Syrian stamps were overprinted for use in Alaouites. There were a total of twenty-five regular issue Syrian overprinted stamps released between 1925 and 1928 as well as thirteen intended for airmail and five for postage due.
The total count, then, for Alaouites stamps is forty-six general issue, seventeen airmail and ten postage due stamps. Because every issue is an overprint, almost every stamp issued has variations of the overprint. Some have multiple copies of the overprint, but the most common variation is the inverted overprint. Most of the stamps are reasonably priced with only ten cataloguing at US $10 and above. The most expensive is Scott #49, 4p on 25c olive black issued in 1928 and valued at US $75 mint and $50 used. Collecting doubled impressions or different colored overprint variations is much more expensive.
In 1930, the Alawite State was renamed the Government of Latakia and Syrian stamps overprinted with “Lattaquie” were released the following year.
To date, I only own one stamp from Alaouites, but it’s a beauty – Scott #C17, 50 centimes yellow green with red overprints, perforated 13½. In June and July 1929, the Alawite State released three airmail stamps, applying an additional overprint of an airplane on previously overprinted stamps in either red or black. The 50 centime value, with its initial overprint of country name in French and Arabic on the Syrian yellow-green type A4, was originally released on 1 March 1925. The view pictured is the harbor area of Alexandretta, to the north of Alaouites. The Scott catalogues lists three varieties for this stamp with minor numbers: #C17a features a doubling of the airplane overprint; #C17b has the airplane overprint on both the front and back of the stamp; and #C17c is a listing for a pair of stamps with the airplane overprint tête bêche, a philatelic term from the French for “head-to-tail” describing a joined pair of stamps in which one is upside-down in relation to the other.