04 January 2021
Myanma Posts and Telecommunications (Burmese: မြန်မာ့ဆက်သွယ်ရေးလုပ်ငန်း), abbreviated MPT) is a state owned enterprise in Myanmar under the supervision of Ministry of Transport and Communications . MPT operates the country’s postal system. The Myanmar Postal Service now runs 1294 post offices throughout the country. Local Express Myanmar Postal Parcel Service was introduced in Yangon and Mandalay on 1 April 1992 and its services are now extended to 129 townships. Until 2013, MPT was also Myanmar’s only telecommunications operator.
Starting in 1854, Burma used the stamps of British India without any form of overprinting. The stamps may be identified by the postmarks used which, after 1856, were specially prepared for Burma post offices. The first stamps of Burma were stamps of British India overprinted BURMA from 1 April 1937.
The first stamps inscribed Burma in the design, rather than simple overprints, were definitive stamps depicting King George VI issued between 1938 and 1940. On 6 May 1940 a commemorative stamp was issued to celebrate the centenary of the first postage stamp by overprinting one of the 1938 stamp with the inscriptions “Commemoration Postage Stamp 6th May 1840”.
During World War II, Burma was occupied by the Japanese between 1942 and 1945. Stamps were issued by the Japanese Army and by the Burma Independence Army in 1942. In 1943 and 1944 stamps were issued by the Burma Government with the permission of the occupying forces. In 1943 separate stamps were also issued for use in the Shan States under Japanese occupation.
After the liberation of Burma, normal postal services were gradually restored under a British Military Administration. Pre-war stamps of Burma from 1938 were overprinted MILY ADMN in 1945.
When civilian administration of Burma was restored, new stamps were issued in the designs of the stamps from 1938 but in different colors. In 1946 a set of 4 Victory stamps were issued. In 1947, the 1946 series was overprinted Interim Government in Burmese characters as Burma gained self government.
On 4 January 1948 Burma became an independent republic as the Union of Burma and stamps were issued in that name until 1973. From 1974 stamps were marked Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, and from 1990 Union of Myanmar.
Myanma Posts and Telecommunications has been championing the development of the telecommunications industry for over 130 years. It provides both fixed and mobile telecommunication services to people and enterprises, including nationwide largest 3G network and MIMO 4X4 powered data service known as LTE+.
In January 2017, mobile operator KDDI, appointed Toshitake Amamiya as the new CEO of MPT, replacing Takashi Nagashima who was CEO since July 2014. Amamiya was previously head of KDDI’s global business division.
In July 2014, MPT, the incumbent telecom operator in Myanmar, signed a Joint Operations Agreement with KSGM, whose ultimate ownership is held by KDDI Corporation (KDDI) & Sumitomo Corporation (Sumitomo). Together, KDDI and Sumitomo have committed to invest over 2 billion dollars to accelerate the development of MPT and Myanmar’s telecommunications industry. This commitment is among the largest historical Japanese investments in the country.
Myanmar Post: Website
Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် / Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw
The Republic of the Union of Myanmar (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်; Pyidaunzu Thanmăda Myăma Nainngandaw) is a country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to its south and southwest. Myanmar is the largest country in Mainland Southeast Asia and the 10th largest in Asia by area. As of 2017, the population was about 54 million. Its capital city is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).
Early civilizations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Burma. In the 9th century, the Bamar people entered the upper Irrawaddy valley, and following the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture, and Theravada Buddhism slowly became dominant in the country. The Pagan Kingdom fell to Mongol invasions, and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo dynasty, the country became the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia for a short period. The early 19th-century Konbaung dynasty ruled over an area that included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur and Assam as well. The British East India Company seized control of the administration of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century, and the country became a British colony. After a brief Japanese occupation, Myanmar was reconquered by the Allies and granted independence in 1948. Following a coup d’état in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party.
For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife and its myriad ethnic groups have been involved in one of the world’s longest-running ongoing civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and several other organizations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the military junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election, and a nominally civilian government was installed. This, along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, has improved the country’s human rights record and foreign relations and has led to the easing of trade and other economic sanctions. There is, however, continuing criticism of the government’s treatment of ethnic minorities, its response to the ethnic insurgency, and religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyi’s party won a majority in both houses. However, the Burmese military remains a powerful force in politics. On 1 February 2019, the National League for Democracy, the ruling party, stated that the military arrested Aung San Suu Kyi and senior figures.
Myanmar is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN, and BIMSTEC, but it is not a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. It is a country rich in jade and gems, oil, natural gas, and other mineral resources. Myanmar is also endowed with renewable energy; it has the highest solar power potential compared to other countries of the Great Mekong Subregion. In 2013, its GDP (nominal) stood at US$56.7 billion and its GDP (PPP) at US$221.5 billion. The income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government. As of 2016, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar ranks 145 out of 188 countries in human development.
The name of the country has been a matter of dispute and disagreement, particularly in the early 21st century, focusing mainly on the political legitimacy of those using Myanmar versus Burma. Both names derive from the earlier Burmese Myanma or Myamma, an ethnonym for the majority Bamar ethnic group, of uncertain etymology. The terms are also popularly thought to derive from Brahma Desha after Brahma.
In 1989, the military government officially changed the English translations of many names dating back to Burma’s colonial period or earlier, including that of the country itself: Burma became Myanmar. The renaming remains a contested issue. Many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country.
In April 2016, soon after taking office, Aung San Suu Kyi said concerning the question of which name should be used that, “it is up to you, because there is nothing in the constitution of our country that says that you must use any term in particular”. She continued, “I use Burma very often because I am used to using it. But it does not mean that I require other people to do that as well. And I’ll make an effort to say Myanmar from time to time so you all feel comfortable.”
Official United States policy retains Burma as the country’s name, although the State Department’s website lists the country as Burma (Myanmar). The CIA’s World Factbook lists the country as Burma as of August 2020. The United Nations uses Myanmar, as does ASEAN, Australia, Russia, Germany, China, India, Bangladesh, Norway, Japan and Switzerland. Most English-speaking international news media refer to the country by the name Myanmar, including the BBC, CNN, Al Jazeera, Reuters, and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC)/Radio Australia.
The current flag of Myanmar was adopted on 21 October 2010 to replace the former flag in use since 1974. The new flag was introduced along with implementing changes to the country’s name, which were laid out in the 2008 Constitution.
The design of the flag has three horizontal stripes of yellow, green and red with a five-pointed white star in the middle. The three colors of the stripes are meant to symbolize solidarity, peace and tranquility, and courage and decisiveness, respectively.
The two flags used by the country immediately prior to the 2010 flag both originated in the Burmese Resistance, which adopted a red flag with a white star when fighting the occupying Japanese forces during World War II.
The flag adopted upon independence from the United Kingdom on 4 January 1948 consisted of a red field with a blue canton. The blue canton was charged with one large white star, representing the union, surrounded by 5 smaller stars representing the main ethnic groups found within the newly independent state. This flag remained in use until January 1974 and has a ratio of 5:9.
The new flag adopted on 3 January 1974 upon the declaration of a socialist republic by Ne Win has a similar ratio as the previous flag and depicted 14 stars, encircling a gear and a rice plant (the logo of the Burma Socialist Programme Party) in a blue-coloured canton against a red field. The rice stands for agriculture, the gear represents industry, and the 14 stars represent each of the 14 member states of the Union. The 14-star flag was hung upside down during the 8888 Uprising of 1988 by the protesters as a sign of protest against the military government.
A new design for the national flag was proposed on 10 November 2006 during a constitutional convention. The new flag would have consisted of three equally sized green, yellow, and red horizontal stripes, with a white star in the hoist end of the green stripe.
In September 2007, another new design was proposed, this time with a larger white star in the middle and with the stripes in a different order, namely: yellow, green, red. That same order was used in the flag of the State of Burma during the Japanese occupation of Burma, which featured a green peacock in the centre. The proposal was a fusion of the flag of the State of Burma without the royal peacock, taking instead the white star that symbolized the Union of Burma in the canton of its flag.
The flag proposed in September 2007 was included in the new constitution, and was accepted with the 2008 referendum. Officials were told to lower the old flag in favor of the new one only shortly before 3:00 p.m. local time on 21 October 2010. Orders were also handed out to ensure all old flags were burned. The adoption of the new flag was announced on state media just prior to the flag changing.
The new flag is a horizontal tricolor flag of yellow, green, and red charged with a five-pointed white star in the middle of the field. The yellow represents solidarity; the green symbolizes peace, tranquility and lush greenery; the red represents courage and determination; and the white star stands for the significance of the union of the country. Green, yellow, and red are also considered the Pan-African colors, leading commentators to note that the new flag looked distinctly “African” and even that it was being confused for the flag of an African country.
The State Seal of Myanmar (Burmese: ပြည်ထောင်စုသမ္မတမြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်အထိမ်းအမှတ်တံဆိပ်) is used in all official government documents, including publications. For the honor of the State Seal, there are State Seal Law and Principles for the usages.
The emblem is with a red background with the golden map of Myanmar in the Center. The map is surrounded by the 14 laurel or olive branches(7 in each side). Beside the branches are chinthe, the mythical lions. The left lion is facing to the left and the right lion is facing to the right.
The Name of the State ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော် (PYIDAUNZU THANMĂDA MYĂMA NAINNGANDAW) is expressed on the scroll. On the top, the large yellow five-pointed star is pointing upward. The other part of the seal is surrounded by the traditional Burmese flower.