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The first six stamps (and one item of postal stationery) to be released by Deutsche Post in 2020 are detailed in the Stempel und Infos bulletin No. 25, published on 29 November 2020.

02 January 2020

Flowers — Daylily

Germany: Flowers – Daylily, 2 January 2020. Image from Deutsche Post.
Germany: Daylilly (gummed stamp), 2 January 2020. Image from Colnect.
Germany: Daylilly (gummed stamp, full sheet), 2 January 2020. Image from Colnect.
Germany: Daylilly (self-adhesive stamp), 2 January 2020. Image from Colnect.
Germany: Flowers – Daylily – coils of 500; 5,000; and 10,000; 2 January 2020. Images from Deutsche Post.

Issue Date:  02.01.2020
Value (in Euro cents):  30
Motif:  Daylily, photo © Stefan Klein and Olaf Neumann, Iserlohn
Design postage stamp and stamp:  Stefan Klein and Olaf Neumann, Iserlohn
Multicolour offset printing by:  Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin, on coated, white and fluorescent postage stamp paper DP II.
Size postage stamp:  21.50 x 30.13 mm
Packing of ten-sheet size:  129 x 90.40 mm
Arrangement of the PWz:  5 PWz next to each other, 2 PWz with each other
Order number:  150909078 single stamp

The following is machine-translated from the German detailed in the Stempel+Informationen bulletin No. 25 published on 29 November 2020:

The yellow-red day lily (Hemerocallis fulva) is a very elegant one with its filigree flowers and grassy leaves and graceful plant. The genus name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek and means “beauty of the day” (hēméra = day; kállos = beauty). And indeed, the life of the colorful flowers is one to one and a half days very short. Because on daylily perennials but numerous buds develop and between June and August open new flowers every day, the beautiful sight can be enjoyed throughout the summer.

The yellow-red day-lily is also called brown-red day-lily and railroader day-lily. It belongs to the genus Daylilies (Hemerocallis) from the subfamily Daylily Family (Hemerocallidoideae), which belongs to the family of the grass family (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Originally from the temperate and tropical regions of East Asia, it probably spread from England to all of Europe from the 17th century. The genus includes about 20 species. There are countless new ones through breeding. Varieties have emerged, the figures range from 50,000 to 83,000 worldwide! Because blaze of color and diversity of varieties nowhere are larger in the perennial kingdom, the daylily was elected the perennial of 2018.

Because of its grace, its robustness and unpretentiousness, the yellow-red daylily is a popular ornament in local gardens. In her Asian countries of origin, she is also valued as an important utility and medicinal plant. It serves for the production of Ropes and shoes and is on the menu as a natural source of vitamins. The traditional Chinese medicine administered the various parts of the plant among other things in insomnia, against tuberculosis, pneumonia and constipation. In The Gelbrote daylily plays no role in European medicine, it is however in the naturopathic Bach flower therapy used.”


The following is excepted from the Wikipedia article about the daylily:

A daylily is a flowering plant in the genus Hemerocallis /ˌhɛmɪroʊˈkælɪs/. Gardening enthusiasts and professional horticulturalists have long bred daylily species for their attractive flowers. Thousands of cultivars have been registered by local and international Hemerocallis societies.  Hemerocallis is now placed in family Asphodelaceae, subfamily Hemerocallidoideae, but used to be part of Liliaceae (which includes true lilies).

The name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek words ἡμέρα (hēmera) “day” and καλός (kalos) “beautiful”.

Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus. Photo taken by Doronenko on 19 May 2007 and published on Wikipedia.

Description
Daylilies are perennial plants, whose name alludes to the flowers which typically last no more than 24 hours (about a day or so). The flowers of most species open in early morning and wither during the following night, possibly replaced by another one on the same scape (flower stalk) the next day. Some species are night-blooming. Daylilies are not commonly used as cut flowers for formal flower arranging, yet they make good cut flowers otherwise as new flowers continue to open on cut stems over several days.

Hemerocallis is native to Asia, primarily eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. This genus is popular worldwide because of the showy flowers and hardiness of many kinds. There are over 80,000 registered cultivars. Hundreds of cultivars have fragrant flowers, and more scented cultivars are appearing more frequently in northern hybridization programs. Some earlier blooming cultivars rebloom later in the season, particularly if their capsules, in which seeds are developing, are removed.

Most kinds of daylilies occur as clumps, each of which has leaves, a crown, flowers, and roots. The long, linear lanceolate leaves are grouped into opposite fans with arching leaves. The crown is the small white portion between the leaves and the roots. Along the scape of some kinds of daylilies, small leafy “proliferations” form at nodes or in bracts. A proliferation forms roots when planted and is often an exact clone of its parent plant. Many kinds of daylilies have thickened roots in which they store food and water.

Species: Hemerocallis fulva: Hemerocallis lilioasphodelus.
Family: Hemerocallidaceae.
Original book source: Prof. Dr. Otto Wilhelm Thomé Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885, Gera, Germany.
Public domain image published on Wikipedia.

A normal, single daylily flower has three petals and three sepals, collectively called tepals, each with a midrib in either the same basic color or a different color. The centermost part of the flower, called the throat, usually is of a different color than the more distal areas of the tepals. Each flower usually has six stamens, each with a two-lobed anther. After successful pollination, a flower forms a botanical capsule (often erroneously called a pod since botanical pods are found in Fabaceae, not Hemerocallis).

The orange or tawny daylily (Hemerocallis fulva), common along roadsides in much of the United States, is native to Asia.

Hemerocallis species are toxic to cats and ingestion may be fatal. Treatment is usually successful if started before renal failure has developed.

An Orange Daylily (Hemerocallis fulva).. This is Hemerocallis “Kwanso” or “Kwanzo,” the only known triploid day lily. It has triple the usual number of petals seen on diploid or tetraploid daylilies. Photo attributed to Steve Karg, and originally uploaded to Wikipedia on 10 June 2006.

Cultivation
The daylily is generally referred to as “the perfect perennial” by gardeners, due to its brilliant colors, ability to tolerate drought and frost and to thrive in many different climate zones, and generally low maintenance. It is a vigorous perennial that lasts for many years in a garden, with very little care and adapts to many different soil and light conditions. Daylilies have a relatively short blooming period, depending on the type. Some will bloom in early spring while others wait until the summer or even autumn. Most daylily plants bloom for 1 through 5 weeks, although some bloom twice in one season (“rebloomers)”.

The orange daylily (Hemerocallis fulva), and the sweet-scented lemon-lily (H. lilioasphodelus; H. flava, old name) were early imports from England to 17th-century American gardens and soon escaped from gardens. The introduced orange daylily, although not a true lily, is now common in many natural areas, where it is considered an invasive species.

Cultivars
There are more than 80,000 daylily cultivars. Depending on the species and cultivar, daylilies grow in USDA plant hardiness zones 1 through 11, making them some of the more adaptable landscape plants. Hybridizers have developed the vast majority of cultivars within the last 100 years. The large-flowered, bright yellow Hemerocallis ‘Hyperion’, introduced in the 1920s, heralded a return to gardens of the once-dismissed daylily, and is still widely available in the nursery trade. Daylily breeding has been a specialty in the United States, where daylily heat- and drought-resistance made them garden standbys since the 1950s. New cultivars have sold for thousands of dollars,[citation needed] but many sturdy and prolific cultivars sell at reasonable prices of US$20 or less.

Daylilies (Hemerocallis) and garden, in New Shoreham, on Block Island, Rhode Island. Photo taken by Billy Hathorn on 25 July 2009 and published on Wikipedia.

Hemerocallis is one of the very highly hybridized plant genera. Hybridizers register hundreds of new cultivars yearly. Hybridizers have extended the genus’ color range from the yellow, orange, and pale pink of the species, through vibrant reds, purples, lavenders, greenish tones, near-black, near-white, and more. However, hybridizers have not yet been able to produce a daylily with primarily blue flowers in forms of blue such as azure blue, cobalt blue, and sky blue. Flowers of some cultivars have small areas of cobalt blue.

Other flower traits that hybridizers developed include height, scent, ruffled edges, contrasting “eyes” in the center of a bloom, and an illusion of glitter which is called “diamond dust.” Sought-after improvements include foliage color and variegation and plant disease resistance and the ability to form large, neat clumps. Hybridizers also seek to make less-hardy plants hardier in Canada and the Northern United States by crossing evergreen and semi-evergreen plants with those that become dormant and by using other methods. Many kinds of daylilies form clumps of crowded shoots. It is possible to dig up every 3 or so years, separate shoots, and replant only some of the shoots to reduce crowding. This process increases the flowering of many cultivars.

In the last several decades, many hybridizers have focused on breeding tetraploid plants, which tend to have sturdier scapes and tepals than diploids and some flower-color traits that are not found in diploids. Until this trend took root, nearly all daylilies were diploid. “Tets,” as they are called by aficionados, have 44 chromosomes, while triploids have 33 chromosomes and diploids have 22 chromosomes per individual plant. Hemerocallis fulva ‘Europa’, H. fulva ‘Kwanso’, H. fulva ‘Kwanso Variegata’, H. fulva ‘Kwanso Kaempfer’, H. fulva var. maculata, H. fulva var. angustifolia, and H. fulva ‘Flore Pleno’ are all triplods that almost never produce seeds and reproduce almost solely by underground runners (stolons) and dividing groups by gardeners. A polymerous daylily flower is one with more than three sepals and more than three petals. Although some people synonymize “polymerous” with “double,” some polymerous flowers have over five times the normal number of petals.

Photograph of an Hemerocallis fulva ‘Europa’. The photo was taken in a summer rain shower around early evening. The raindrops are real. Photo taken by Derek Ramsey on 12 June 2007 and published on Wikipedia.

Formerly daylilies were only available in yellow, pink, fulvous (bronzed), and rosy-fulvous colors, now they come in an assortment of many more color shades and tints thanks to intensive hybridization. They can now be found in nearly every color except pure blue and pure white. Those with yellow, pink, and other pastel flowers may require full sun to bring out all of their colors; darker varieties, including many of those with red and purple flowers are not colorfast in bright sun.

Pests
Contarinia quinquenotata, commonly known as the daylily gall midge, is a small gray insect infesting the flower buds of Hemerocallis species causing the flower to remain closed and rot. It is a pest within the horticultural trade in several parts of the world, including Southern and Eastern Europe, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.

Uses
The flowers of Hemerocallis citrina are edible and are used in Chinese cuisine. They are sold (fresh or dried) in Asian markets as gum jum (金针 in Chinese; pinyin: jīn zhēn) or yellow flower vegetables (黃花菜 in Chinese; pinyin: huáng huā cài). They are used in hot and sour soup, daylily soup (金針花湯), Buddha’s delight, and moo shu pork.

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