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Aegean Islands (Dodecanese)
Italian Islands of the Aegean
Isole Italiane dell’Egeo

LOCATION: Aegean Sea – Group of 12 islands, plus Rhodes and Castelrosso
GOVERNMENT: Military occupation and intermediate colony of Italy
POPULATION: 132,289 (est. 1936)
CAPITAL: Rhodes
FIRST STAMPS USED: Turkish stamps up to 1912
FIRST STAMPS ISSUED: Overprinted Italian stamps 1912
LAST STAMPS ISSUED: 1940
CURRENCY:
100 Centesimi = 1 Lira

The Dodecanese are a group of twelve islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea. Although the name literally means “the twelve islands”, the group actually comprises 15 larger and 150 smaller islands, of which only 26 are occupied. They were civilized in ancient times and formed part of the base for Venetian merchants, played a minor role in the history of Classical Greece and subsequently joined the Roman Empire. They belonged to the Knights of St. John from 1309-1522 but were then conquered by the Turks and included in the Ottoman Empire. Due to their rich history, many of even the smallest inhabited islands boast dozens of Byzantine churches and medieval castles.

Aegean Islands (Dodecanese)-v2

In the midst of the Italo-Turkish War over Libya, the Dodecanese Islands were seized by Italy in April 1912, becoming Italian colonies. Italy agreed to return the islands to the Ottoman Empire according to the Treaty of Ouchy signed on 18 October 1912 but the vagueness of the text allowed a provisional Italian administration of the Dodecanese. Although there were 13 islands occupied by the Italians (12 plus Rhodes), the name “Dodecanese” remained unchanged. The occupation continued after Italy declared war on the Ottoman Empire on 21 August 1915 during the First World War. During the war, the islands became an important naval base for Britain and France; Italy was allied with both nations during this time. The Dodecanese were used as a staging area for numerous campaigns, most famously the one at Gallipoli.

Rhodes 06

Turkey renounced all claims on the islands in the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 and the Dodecanese were formally annexed by Fascist Italy as the Possedimenti Italiani dell’Egeo. Britain attempted to capture the islands during World War II without success. After the Italian armistice in 1943, the islands were occupied by German forces. Britain finally occupied them from 1945-47 after which they were ceded to Greece.

Rhodes 07

Before seizure by the Italians, the Dodecanese had a limited postal service under Turkish control. Italian interests in the Aegean region date from the 1897 blockade of Crete and the opening of an Italian civilian post office at Canea in 1900.  An Italian fleet began occupying the archipelago in May 1912. 

Italian forces landing in the Dodecanese, 1912

Before official Italian government stamps could be released, a “Commissione del popolo” on the island of Calino decided to issue postage stamps for use on all the islands. Three denominations were released in May 1912 by this Autonomous Administration and were only used on philatelic covers with favor cancels.  A decree by the Commissioner for Civilian Affairs of the occupying forces was issued on 10 September 1912 authorizing the overprinting of two Italian definitive stamps (25c and 50c) with the inscription EGEO. These were placed on sale in the islands on 22 September.

Scan_20160520 (7)

On 1 December 1912, a set of seven Italian stamps were issued for each of the individual islands with the Italian name of the island overprinted. These were Astypalaea (Stampalia), Kalimnos (Calimno), Karpathos (Scarpanto), Kasos (Caso), Khalki (Carchi), Kos (Cos), Leros (Lero), Lipsos (Lipso), Nisyros (Nisiros), Patmos (Patmo), Rhodes (Rodi), Syme (Simi), and Telos (Piscopi). Regardless of the overprint, all of these new stamps were valid for use throughout the Dodecanese.   Between 1912 and 1924 these stamps were used concurrently with Italian stamps.

Castellorizo 01

In January 1916, Italian stamps without overprint were issued.  Katelorizo (Castelrosso) was added to the Dodecanese in 1921, having been under French occupation since 27 December 1915. Italian stamps overprinted with the island’s name were issued on 11 July 1922.  The Italian occupation ended on 24 July 1923 when the archipelago officially became an Italian colony. On 19 May 1929, a nine-value definitive series was issued for Rhodes, inscribed with the Italian RODI.

Italo-Turkish_War_peace_treaty_chromolithograph

On 20 October 1930, a set honoring Italian hero Ferrucci was issued for each island with the name again overprinted. There was also a general issue of the same set with the overprint ISOLE ITALIANE DELL’EGEO.  The 20th anniversary of the Italian takeover of the Dodecanese was commemorated with a ten-value set inscribed RODI.  There was a further issue in 1932 for the individual islands but, after that, only Rhodes was given its own stamps. For the rest, the general issues applied.

Rhodes 03

During the Second World War, the airfields of Rhodes, Cos and Leros became the main Axis bases for air raids against British forces in Egypt.  Greece capitulated in April 1941 and during the following month Italian forces completed the occupation of the Cyclades Islands.  The ousting of Mussolini during the summer of 1943 was followed by Italy’s signing of an armistice with the Allies.  On 8 September, the Germans invaded Rhodes and the occupation was completed in a matter of days. 

Simi 001

Under German military rule, the Dodecanese was administratively run by Italian civilians.  Between November 1943 and February 1945, several Italian colonial stamps were overprinted with surcharges in aid of refugees and victims of war. During this time, there were eight internment camps for Italian soldiers on Rhodes.  In October 1944, German forces evacuated Greece and their counterparts in the Aegean were cut off from sea-route supplies and mail.  Only air links were possible, thus impacting the influx of mail to and from German soldiers in the area.  As a result, rationed concessionary stamps for the German Field Post were overprinted INSELPOST (Island Post) and issued.  On 22 December 1944, Italian postal authorities made quantities of the 5c Rhodes definitive stamps available to the Germans who overprinted them with the inscription WEIHNACHTEN 1944 (Christmas 1944). 

British troops in landing craft - Dodecanese

In May 1945, the German capitulation in the Aegean was formally ratified in Berlin and a British Military Administration was established in Rhodes.  British stamps were overprinted M.E.F. (Middle East Forces) and placed in use.  The British occupation ended on 31 March 1947 and the Greeks took over.  The following day, a Greek stamp overprinted SDD (Stratiotiki Dioikisis Dodecanissou – Dodecanese Military Occupation) was issued.  Seven denominations with the same overprint were added on 21 September.  These were withdrawn on 20 November and replaced by Greek general issue stamps, beginning with the “Restoration of the Dodecanese” definitive series. 

Short Sunderland-RAF-1940'-Castelrosso

The Aegean Islands were officially annexed by the Kingdom of Greece on 7 March 1948.  The current status of the islands is that they remain a constituent part of Greece and continue to use Greek stamps.

There were a total of 116 stamps – 65 general issue, 47 air mail, and 4 air mail special delivery – issued for the Dodecanese Islands.  Of these, I have but one – a used copy of Scott #2.  Many have a high catalogue value, particularly in used condition.  As with all occupied regions, the area is an interesting one to study and I hope to add to my collection.  I will deal with stamps for the individual islands as well as the German, British, and Greek occupations in separate “Stamp Issuer” installments.

Around two-and-a-half years ago, I set out to collect A Stamp From Everywhere (ASFEW).  The first step in this endeavor was to set some criteria:  For the most part, I am collecting only those stamps listed in the Scott Catalogue.  These aren’t always actual “countries”; many towns and cities, provinces, states, colonies, and organizations have issued stamps over the past one hundred and seventy-six years.  Because of this, I usually refer to “stamp issuers” or “issuing entities” when writing about them.

A second criteria concerns my budget.  My occupation as a teacher doesn’t make me rich in any sense of the word and as an English teacher in Thailand, I earn significantly less than I would in a more developed country.  Thus, there are certain issuers which will sadly always remain out of my collection.  An example of these would be the various Postmasters’ Provisionals issued by the Confederate States (and most of those by the U.S.A. as well).

I still do not have a grand total of stamp issuers.  I’ve been working on a spreadsheet designed to help me but it is a slow process.  I decided the best way to tackle that project was to go page by page through my Scott Catalogue (6-volume 2009 edition) and list all the stamp issuing entities and their page numbers, along with a great deal of additional information.  Bear in mind that each volume of this edition numbers around 1,300 pages and is not strictly alphabetical (Åland Islands is found after Finland, for example) with some entities even appearing in two different locations based on political status (Azores appearing both in Volume 1 at the end of the A’s and in volume 5 following Portugal to cite one instance).  Fairly often, I run into the question of whether or not I should separate an entity from it’s mother listing at all.

As I’ve added stamps to the collection, I’ve departed from the original goal of adding a single stamp from each issuer.  It is much more satisfying to look at an album page containing a set, for example.  For certain entities, I’ve also delved into covers (FDC’s, flight covers or the occasional bit of postal history) and the odd bit of unlisted postal stationery (I tend to go for the postal cards rather than envelopes).

I am (slowly) creating self-designed album pages for each entity which includes a map, flag(s) used, and a brief overview of their political and/or postal history.  While it all seems like a lot of work, it is probably the most satisfying of all of my collections that I’ve created over the past forty-plus years. 

While I didn’t set out to collect alphabetically, I’ve found that is the easiest way to search on eBay as well as giving me a greater sense of accomplishment as I near the completion of a letter of the alphabet.

While there may be a few more “A’s” in volumes 5 and 6 of the Scott Catalogue, I am confident that I can call the letter almost complete (minus nine Confederate Postmasters who issued provisionals from places such as Anderson Court House, South Carolina and Augusta, Georgia).

The following are the “A” stamp issuers, as I have sorted them in my collection, illustrated by a single stamp from each and listing the year range they issued stamps and the number of stamps I currently have from each (minus duplicates and unlisted stamps). 

*I will probably end up re-sorting the Aden Protectorate States in the K’s and Q’s to be consistent with how I’m organizing other states and territories.

Abu Dhabi [1964-1972]: 9 stamps owned
Abu Dhabi - 1 - 1964

 

 

 

 

Aden Colony [1937-1965]: 40 stamps owned
Aden - 23A - 1939

 

 

 

 

Aden Protectorate: Kathiri State of Seiyun [1942-1964]: 6 stamps owned*
Aden - Kathiri State of Seiyun - 1 - 1942

 

 

 

 

Aden Protectorate: Qu’aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla [1942-1955]: 2 stamps owned*
Aden - Hadhramaut - 31 - 1955

 

 

 

 

 

Aden Protectorate: Qu’aiti State in Hadhamaut [1955-1963]: 4 stamps owned*
Aden - Hadhramaut - 30 - 1955

 

 

 

 

 

Aegean Islands (Dodecanese) [1912-1945]: 1 stamp owned
Scan_20160520 (7)

 

 

 

 

Afars and Issas [1967-1977]: 4 stamps owned
Afars And Issas - 321 - 1968

 

 

 

 

Afghanistan [1871-Present]: 3 stamps owned
Afghanistan - 689 - 1964

 

 

 

 

La Aguera [1920-1924]: 2 stamps owned
Aguera, La - 14 - 1922

 

 

 

 

Aitutaki [1903-1932, 1972-Present]: 9 stamps owned
Aitutaki - 33 - 1920

 

 

 

 

Ajman [1964-1972]: 9 stamps owned
Ajman - C9 - 1965

 

 

 

 

Åland Islands [1984-Present]: 14 stamps owned
Åland Islands - 72a - 1993

 

 

 

 

 

Alaouites [1925-1930]: 1 stamp owned
Alaouites - C17 - 1929

 

 

 

Albania [1913-Present]: 2 stamps owned
Albania - 232 - 1928

 

 

 

 

Alderney [1983-Present]: 5 stamps owned
Alderney - 37 - 1989

 

 

 

 

Alexandretta [1938]: 2 stamps owned
Alexandretta - J1 - 1938

 

 

 

 

Alexandria (French Post Office in Egypt) [1899-1931]: 1 stamp owned
Alexandria - 27 - 1902

 

 

 

 

Algeria [1924-1958, 1962-Present]: 83 stamps owned
Algeria - 1 - 1924 (1)

 

 

 

 

Alsace (German Occupation) [1940]: 2 stamps owned
Alsace - N29 - 1940

 

 

 

 

Alsace and Lorraine (German Occupation) [1870-1872, 1916]: 2 stamps owned
Alsace And Lorraine - N4 - 1870

 

 

 

 

Alwar [1877-1902]: 7 stamps owned
Scan_20160331 (7)

 

 

 

 

Andorra (French Administration) [1931-Present]: 6 stamps owned
Andorra, French - 23 - 1932

 

 

 

 

Andorra (Spanish Administration) [1928-Present]: 4 stamps owned
Andorra, Spanish - 102a - 1978

 

 

 

 

 

Angola [1870-Present]: 19 stamps owned
Angola - 119 - 1914

 

 

 

 

Angra [1892-1906]: 6 stamps owned
Angra - 2 - 1892

 

 

 

 

Anguilla [1967-Present]: 1 souvenir sheet owned
Anguilla - 366a - 1979 (rs)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anjouan [1892-1914]: 1 stamp owned
Anjouan - 4 - 1892

 

 

 

 

Annam and Tonkin [1888-1892]: 1 stamp owned
Annam and Tonkin - 1 - 1888

 

 

 

 

Antigua [1862-1981]: 2 stamps owned
Antigua - 84 - 1938

 

 

 

 

 

Antigua and Barbuda [1981-Present]: 9 stamps owned
Antigua & Barbuda - 746 - 1984

 

 

 

 

Antioquia [1868-1904]: 6 stamps owned
Antioquia - 123 - 1899

 

 

 

 

Arad (French Occupation in Hungary) [1919]: 1 stamp owned
Scan_20160331

 

 

 

 

Argentina [1858-Present]: 3 stamps owned
Argentina - 551 - 1946

 

 

 

 

 

Armenia [1919-1923, 1992-Date]: 6 stamps owned
Armenia - 300 - 1922

 

 

 

 

 

Army of the North (Russian Civil War) [1919]: 5 stamps owned
Scan_20160520 (4)

 

 

 

 Army of the Northwest (Russian Civil War) [1919]: 1 stamp owned
Scan_20160520 (8)

 

 

 

 Aruba [1986-Present]: 3 stamps owned
Aruba - 266 - 2005

 

 

 

 

 

Ascension [1922-Present]: 4 stamps owned
Ascension - 46 - 1944

 

 

 

 

Australia [1902-Present]: 172 stamps owned
Australia - 1199 - 1991 (1)

 

 

 

 

Australian Antarctic Territory [1957-Present]: 5 stamps owned
AAT - L75 - 1986

 

 

 

 

 

Austria [1850-Present]: 75 stamps owned
Austria - 5 - 1850

 

 

 

 

Austrian Offices in Crete [1903-1914]: 6 stamps owned
Scan_20160601 (3)

 

 

 

 

Austrian Offices in the Turkish Empire [1867-1914]: 6 stamps owned
Austria-Turkish Empire - 7F - 1876

 

 

 

 

Azerbaijan [1919-1924, 1992-Present]: 1 stamp owned
Scan_20160331 (2)

 

 

 

 

Azores [1868-1931, 1980-Present]: 1 souvenir sheet owned
Scan_20160331 (3)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So, the “A’s” portion in what I am now calling my “Stamps From (Almost) Everywhere” collection currently has some 552 stamps amongst 45 stamp-issuing entities.  The B’s appear to be about halfway completed as are the C’s and I suppose there is probably one more entity to go in the Q’s.  There are other letters in the alphabet that are nearing completion as well….